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Human Rights Abuses :

Any kind of violence against a person, whether physical, psychological, crimes against life, or assaults that violate honor, the right to civil liberty, political and general violations can be considered human rights abuses.

In 1948, the United Nations General Assembly adopted the Universal Declaration of Human Rights as a standard of rights for everyone and everywhere. It has been signed by the 192 countries that make up the UN. However, the declaration is not a law; it is only a recommendation.

Nonetheless, relevant conventions such as women's rights, civil and political rights, prohibition of torture, and cultural rights, are mandatory for member states and considered law.

The declaration contains 30 articles that aim to ensure freedom, justice, and peace. For example, the right to life, liberty, and security; no slavery; no torture; it also claims that all human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights; it also claims that all human beings are entitled to equal protection of the law, ensuring that no one may be imprisoned, detained, or exiled in an oppressive and illogical manner and that all are considered innocent until proven guilty in a legal way, while still ensuring all possibilities of defense.

The declaration also guarantees freedom of movement, the right to asylum, freedom of thought, conscience, religion, and opinion and expression, among others. The UN still claims significant achievements, such as economic, social, cultural, civil, and political rights, being recognized as universal and human rights that have become central to the global peace, security, and development discourse. There is also a consensus that gross human rights violations should not go unpunished. Victims have the right to demand justice.

Some human rights violations and abuses are, for example, the right to life: It is an inherent right of all human beings. However, in some countries, the issue of crimes, infractions, and transgressions of the law is punishable by death.

In 2018, Amnesty International recorded a 31% decrease compared to the previous year. Most executions that year occurred in China, Iran, Saudi Arabia, Vietnam, and Iraq. Furthermore, the death penalty is not the only infringement on the right to life. Conflicts between nations, terrorism, and criminality also consistently hurt this principle. Violence can also be considered a contributing factor to fundamental human rights; a clear example of violence was George Floyd's case, which happened in 2020 with police violence as well.

Taliban has a long history of Human Rights Violations in Afghanistan. After taking offices, almost all examples and human rights standards, especially regarding women, have been violated in Afghanistan.

Richard Bennett, the UN Special Rapporteur on the state of human rights in Afghanistan, concluded that all parties must take immediate steps to prevent the crisis from worsening.

According to the expert, most interested parties have raised severe worries about the precarious status of women and girls, the rise in attacks on houses of worship, schools, transit systems, and minority populations, particularly Hazara-Shia. With escalating attacks on places of worship, schools, transit networks, and minority groups, as well as violations against civilians and combatant hors de combat in areas where armed groups are still active, the humanitarian situation is still terrible, and the security situation is precarious.

Other forms of human rights abuse are slavery, torture and ill-treatment, unfair trials and arbitrary deprivation of liberty, repression, and even cases of intolerance and oppression that can hurt fundamental human rights.

Nowadays, the UN's primary concern is protecting human rights globally. Human rights are expressed in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and recognized by most nations. The current situation in the world, however, is far from the imagined ideals. Since the rules that make up the covenants and conventions still need to be effectively enforced, no universal court has the competence to judge nations that commit these violations. Therefore, individual states must have a greater interest in combating these violations.

Due to this, the punishment for those who violate human rights is in particular in each country. Depending on the degree of what has occurred, the UN can interfere by guaranteeing the application of such rights, but not in an effective way in terms of enforcing the penalty for those who commit crimes of this nature or with a fiscal or regulatory action. The most that the United Nations can do is to make recommendations for the signatory countries to follow the precepts established in the document.

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